Pentecostalism – Wikipedia

“ pentecostal ” redirects here. For other uses, see Pentecost ( disambiguation ) Renewal apparent motion within Protestant Christianity
Pentecostalism or classical Pentecostalism is a protestant Charismatic Christian apparent motion [ 1 ] [ 2 ] that emphasizes conduct personal know of God through baptism with the Holy Spirit. [ 1 ] The term Pentecostal is derived from Pentecost, an consequence that commemorates the descent of the Holy Spirit upon the Apostles and other followers of Jesus Christ while they were in Jerusalem celebrating the Feast of Weeks, as described in the Acts of the Apostles ( Acts 2:1–31 ). [ 4 ] Like other forms of evangelical Protestantism, Pentecostalism adheres to the inerrancy of the Bible and the necessity of the New Birth : an individual repent of their sin and “ accepting Jesus Christ as personal Lord and Savior ”. It is distinguished by belief in the “ baptism in the Holy Spirit ” that enables a christian to “ live a Spirit-filled and empowered life ”. This authorization includes the use of spiritual gifts : such as speak in tongues and divine bring around. [ 1 ] Because of their commitment to biblical authority, apparitional gifts, and the heaven-sent, Pentecostals see their movement as reflecting the lapp kind of religious power and teachings that were found in the Apostolic Age of the early on church. For this reason, some Pentecostals besides use the term “ Apostolic ” or “ Full Gospel “ to describe their movement. [ 1 ]

Holiness Pentecostalism emerged in the early twentieth century among free radical adherents of the Wesleyan-Holiness movement, who were energized by christian revivalism and expectation for the at hand Second Coming of Christ. [ 6 ] Believing that they were living in the end times, they expected God to spiritually renew the Christian Church, and bring to pass the restoration of spiritual gifts and the evangelization of the global. In 1900, Charles Parham, an american evangelist and faith therapist, began teaching that speaking in tongues was the bible evidence of Spirit baptism. Along with William J. Seymour, a Wesleyan-Holiness preacher, he taught that this was the third work of grace. [ 7 ] The three-year-long Azusa Street Revival, founded and led by Seymour in Los Angeles, California, resulted in the growth of Pentecostalism throughout the United States and the perch of the world. Visitors carried the Pentecostal experience back to their home plate churches or felt called to the mission field. While about all Pentecostal denominations trace their origins to Azusa Street, the movement has had several divisions and controversies. early on disputes centered on challenges to the doctrine of entire sanctification, equally well as that of the Trinity. As a leave, the Pentecostal motion is divided between Holiness Pentecostals who affirm the irregular work of grace, and Finished Work Pentecostals who are partitioned into trinitarian and non-trinitarian branches, the latter giving ascend to Oneness Pentecostalism. [ 8 ] [ 9 ] Comprising over 700 denominations and many independent churches, Pentecostalism is highly decentralized. [ 10 ] No central authority exists, but many denominations are affiliated with the Pentecostal World Fellowship. With over 279 million classical Pentecostals cosmopolitan, the motion is growing in many parts of the world, particularly the Global South and Third World countries. [ 10 ] [ 11 ] [ 12 ] [ 13 ] [ 14 ] Since the 1960s, Pentecostalism has increasingly gained adoption from early christian traditions, and Pentecostal beliefs concerning the baptism of the Holy Spirit and spiritual gifts have been embraced by non-Pentecostal Christians in Protestant and Catholic churches through their adhesiveness to the Charismatic apparent motion. together, worldwide Pentecostal and Charismatic Christianity numbers over 644 million adherents. [ 15 ] While the movement primitively attracted by and large lower classes in the global South, there is a new solicitation to middle classes. [ 16 ] [ 17 ] [ 18 ] Middle-class congregations tend to have fewer members. [ 19 ] [ 20 ] [ 21 ] Pentecostalism is believed to be the fastest-growing religious movement in the global. [ 22 ]

history [edit ]

background [edit ]

early Pentecostals have considered the movement a latter-day restoration of the church ‘s papal power, and historians such as Cecil M. Robeck, Jr. and Edith Blumhofer write that the movement emerged from late 19th-century radical evangelical revival movements in America and in Great Britain. [ 24 ] Within this root evangelicalism, expressed most powerfully in the Wesleyan–holiness and Higher Life movements, themes of restorationism, premillennialism, faith heal, and greater attention on the person and influence of the Holy Spirit were central to emerging Pentecostalism. Believing that the second hail of Christ was at hand, these Christians expected an endtime revival of apostolic power, religious gifts, and miracle-working. Figures such as Dwight L. Moody and R. A. Torrey began to speak of an experience available to all Christians which would empower believers to evangelize the world, often termed baptism with the Holy Spirit. Certain christian leaders and movements had significant influences on early Pentecostals. The basically cosmopolitan belief in the sequel of all the spiritual gifts in the Keswick and Higher Life movements constituted a all-important historic background for the ascend of Pentecostalism. [ 28 ] Albert Benjamin Simpson ( 1843–1919 ) and his christian and missionary Alliance ( founded in 1887 ) was identical influential in the early years of Pentecostalism, specially on the development of the Assemblies of God. Another early charm on Pentecostals was John Alexander Dowie ( 1847–1907 ) and his christian Catholic Apostolic Church ( founded in 1896 ). Pentecostals embraced the teachings of Simpson, Dowie, Adoniram Judson Gordon ( 1836–1895 ) and Maria Woodworth-Etter ( 1844–1924 ; she late joined the Pentecostal bowel movement ) on healing. [ 29 ] Edward Irving ‘s Catholic Apostolic Church ( founded c. 1831 ) besides displayed many characteristics later found in the Pentecostal revival. Isolated christian groups were experiencing charismatic phenomena such as divine healing and talk in tongues. The holiness bowel movement provided a theological explanation for what was happening to these Christians, and they adapted Wesleyan soteriology to accommodate their newfangled agreement. [ 31 ] [ 32 ]

early revivals : 1900–29 [edit ]

Charles Fox Parham, who associated glossolalia with the baptism in the Holy Spirit The Apostolic Faith Mission on Azusa Street, now considered to be the birthplace of pentecostalism Charles Fox Parham, an autonomous holiness evangelist who believed strongly in godhead bring around, was an authoritative figure to the emergence of Pentecostalism as a distinct christian movement. In 1900, he started a school near Topeka, Kansas, which he named Bethel Bible School. There he taught that talk in tongues was the scriptural evidence for the reception of the baptism with the Holy Spirit. On January 1, 1901, after a watch night avail, the students prayed for and received the baptism with the Holy Spirit with the tell of speak in tongues. Parham received this same feel erstwhile late and began preaching it in all his services. Parham believed this was xenoglossia and that missionaries would no long need to study foreign languages. After 1901, Parham closed his Topeka school and began a four-year revival enlistment throughout Kansas and Missouri. [ 33 ] He taught that the baptism with the Holy Spirit was a third gear feel, subsequent to conversion and sanctification. sanctification cleansed the believer, but Spirit baptism empowered for military service. [ 34 ] At about the same time that Parham was spreading his doctrine of initial testify in the Midwestern United States, news program of the Welsh Revival of 1904–05 inflame intense speculation among radical evangelicals around the world and peculiarly in the US of a coming move of the Spirit which would renew the stallion christian church service. This revival saw thousands of conversions and besides exhibited speaking in tongues. [ 35 ] In 1905, Parham moved to Houston, Texas, where he started a bible training school. One of his students was William J. Seymour, a one-eyed black preacher. Seymour traveled to Los Angeles where his sermon sparked the three-year-long Azusa Street Revival in 1906. [ 36 ] The revival beginning broke out on Monday April 9, 1906 at 214 Bonnie Brae Street and then moved to 312 Azusa Street on Friday, April 14, 1906. [ 37 ] Worship at the racially integrated Azusa Mission featured an absence of any regulate of service. People preached and testified as moved by the Spirit, spoke and spill the beans in tongues, and fell in the Spirit. The revival attracted both religious and secular media attention, and thousands of visitors flocked to the mission, carrying the “ fuel ” back to their family churches. [ 38 ] Despite the work of versatile Wesleyan groups such as Parham ‘s and D. L. Moody ‘s revivals, the begin of the far-flung Pentecostal movement in the US is by and large considered to have begun with Seymour ‘s Azusa Street Revival. [ 39 ]
The push of African-Americans and whites worshiping together at William Seymour ‘s Azusa Street Mission set the tone for much of the early Pentecostal movement. During the period of 1906–24, Pentecostals defied sociable, cultural and political norms of the time that called for racial segregation and the act of Jim Crow laws. The church of God in Christ, the Church of God ( Cleveland ), the Pentecostal Holiness Church, and the Pentecostal Assemblies of the World were all interracial denominations before the 1920s. These groups, specially in the Jim Crow South were under great pressure to conform to segregation. ultimately, north american Pentecostalism would divide into white and african-american branches. Though it never entirely disappeared, interracial worship within Pentecostalism would not reemerge as a widespread practice until after the civil rights drift. [ 40 ]
Women in a Pentecostal worship service Women were vital to the early Pentecostal motion. [ 41 ] Believing that whoever received the Pentecostal know had the province to use it towards the planning for Christ ‘s second coming, Pentecostal women held that the baptism in the Holy Spirit gave them authorization and justification to engage in activities traditionally denied to them. [ 42 ] [ 43 ] The first person at Parham ‘s Bible college to receive Spirit baptism with the attest of speaking in tongues was a woman, Agnes Ozman. [ 42 ] [ 44 ] [ 45 ] Women such as Florence Crawford, Ida Robinson, and Aimee Semple McPherson founded new denominations, and many women served as pastors, co-pastors, and missionaries. [ 46 ] Women wrote religious songs, edited Pentecostal papers, and teach and ran Bible schools. [ 47 ] The unconventionally acute and aroused environment generated in pentecostal meetings dually promoted, and was itself created by, other forms of engagement such as personal testimony and spontaneous prayer and whistle. Women did not shy away from engaging in this forum, and in the early motion the majority of converts and church-goers were female. [ 48 ] Nevertheless, there was considerable ambiguity surrounding the function of women in the church. The subside of the early Pentecostal movement allowed a socially more conservative approach to women to settle in, and, as a result, female participation was channeled into more supportive and traditionally accepted roles. Auxiliary women ‘s organizations were created to focus women ‘s talents on more traditional activities. Women besides became much more likely to be evangelists and missionaries than pastors. When they were pastors, they much co-pastored with their husbands. [ 49 ] The majority of early Pentecostal denominations taught christian pacifism and adopted military serve articles that advocated conscientious objection. [ 50 ]

circulate and opposition [edit ]

Azusa participants returned to their homes carrying their new feel with them. In many cases, whole churches were converted to the Pentecostal religion, but many times Pentecostals were forced to establish new religious communities when their have was rejected by the established churches. One of the first areas of engagement was the african continent, where, by 1907, American missionaries were established in Liberia, ampere well as in South Africa by 1908. [ 51 ] Because talk in tongues was initially believed to constantly be actual foreign languages, it was believed that missionaries would no long have to learn the languages of the peoples they evangelized because the Holy Spirit would provide whatever extraneous language was required. ( When the majority of missionaries, to their disappointment, learned that tongues speech was opaque on the mission field, pentecostal leaders were forced to modify their understand of tongues. ) [ 52 ] Thus, as the experience of speaking in tongues spread, a sense of the immediacy of Christ ‘s render took cargo area and that energy would be directed into missionary and evangelistic natural process. early Pentecostals saw themselves as outsiders from mainstream society, dedicated entirely to preparing the manner for Christ ‘s restitution. [ 42 ] [ 53 ] An consociate of Seymour ‘s, Florence Crawford, brought the message to the Northwest, forming what would become the Apostolic Faith Church —a Holiness Pentecostal denomination—by 1908. After 1907, Azusa participant William Howard Durham, pastor of the North Avenue Mission in Chicago, returned to the Midwest to lay the foundation for the motion in that region. It was from Durham ‘s church that future leaders of the Pentecostal Assemblies of Canada would hear the Pentecostal message. [ 54 ] One of the most well known Pentecostal pioneers was Gaston B. Cashwell ( the “ Apostle of Pentecost ” to the South ), whose evangelistic work led three Southeastern holiness denominations into the modern movement. [ 55 ] The Pentecostal bowel movement, specially in its early stages, was typically associated with the deprive and marginalized of America, specially african Americans and Southern Whites. With the serve of many healing evangelists such as Oral Roberts, Pentecostalism spread across America by the 1950s. [ 56 ]
International visitors and Pentecostal missionaries would finally export the revival to other nations. The beginning foreign pentecostal missionaries were A. G. Garr and his wife, who were Spirit baptized at Azusa and traveled to India and late Hong Kong. [ 57 ] The norwegian Methodist pastor T. B. Barratt was influenced by Seymour during a tour of the United States. By December 1906, he had returned to Europe and is credited with beginning the Pentecostal movement in Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Germany, France and England. [ 58 ] A noteworthy convert of Barratt was Alexander Boddy, the Anglican vicar of All Saints ‘ in Sunderland, England, who became a laminitis of british Pentecostalism. [ 59 ] early significant converts of Barratt were german minister Jonathan Paul who founded the first german Pentecostal denomination ( the Mülheim Association ) and Lewi Pethrus, the swedish Baptist minister who founded the swedish Pentecostal movement. [ 60 ] Through Durham ‘s ministry, italian immigrant Luigi Francescon received the Pentecostal experience in 1907 and established italian Pentecostal congregations in the US, Argentina ( christian Assembly in Argentina ), and Brazil ( christian Congregation of Brazil ). In 1908, Giacomo Lombardi led the first Pentecostal services in Italy. [ 61 ] In November 1910, two swedish Pentecostal missionaries arrived in Belem, Brazil and established what would become the Assembleias de Deus ( Assemblies of God of Brazil ). [ 62 ] In 1908, John G. Lake, a follower of Alexander Dowie who had experienced Pentecostal Spirit baptism, traveled to South Africa and founded what would become the Apostolic Faith Mission of South Africa and the Zion Christian Church. [ 63 ] As a solution of this missionary ardor, practically all Pentecostal denominations today trace their diachronic roots to the Azusa Street Revival. [ 64 ] The first generation of Pentecostal believers faced huge criticism and ostracism from other Christians, most vehemently from the Holiness movement from which they originated. Alma White, drawing card of the Pillar of Fire Church —a Holiness Methodist appellation, wrote a script against the movement titled Demons and Tongues in 1910. She called Pentecostal tongues “ demonic gibberish ” and Pentecostal services “ the climax of monster worship ”. [ 65 ] Famous Holiness Methodist preacher W. B. Godbey characterized those at Azusa Street as “ Satan ‘s preachers, jugglers, necromancers, enchanters, magicians, and all sorts of mendicants ”. To Dr. G. Campbell Morgan, Pentecostalism was “ the last vomit of Satan ”, while Dr. R. A. Torrey thought it was “ decidedly not of God, and founded by a Sodomite ”. [ 66 ] The Pentecostal Church of the Nazarene, one of the largest holiness groups, was strongly opposed to the newly Pentecostal bowel movement. To avoid confusion, the church changed its name in 1919 to the Church of the Nazarene. [ 67 ] A. B. Simpson ‘s Christian and Missionary Alliance—a Keswickian denomination—negotiated a compromise position unique for the clock time. Simpson believed that Pentecostal tongues speaking was a legalize demonstration of the Holy Spirit, but he did not believe it was a necessity evidence of Spirit baptism. This view on talk in tongues ultimately led to what became known as the “ Alliance position ” articulated by A. W. Tozer as “ search not—forbid not ”. [ 67 ]

early controversies [edit ]

The beginning Pentecostal converts were chiefly derived from the Holiness movement and adhered to a Wesleyan understand of sanctification as a definite, instantaneous experience and irregular ferment of grace. [ 6 ] Problems with this view arose when large numbers of converts entered the movement from non-Wesleyan backgrounds, specially from Baptist churches. [ 68 ] In 1910, William Durham of Chicago inaugural articulated the Finished Work, a doctrine which located sanctification at the moment of salvation and held that after conversion the Christian would increasingly grow in grace in a lifelong serve. [ 69 ] This teaching polarized the Pentecostal movement into two factions : Holiness Pentecostalism and Finished Work Pentecostalism. [ 8 ] The Wesleyan doctrine was strongest in the Apostolic Faith Church, which views itself as being the successor of the Azusa Street Revival, american samoa well as in the Congregational Holiness Church, Church of God ( Cleveland ), Church of God in Christ, Free Gospel Church and the Pentecostal Holiness Church ; these bodies are classed as Holiness Pentecostal denominations. [ 70 ] The Finished Work, however, would ultimately gain dominance among Pentecostals, in denominations such as the Assemblies of God, which was the first Finished Work Pentecostal denomination. [ 9 ] After 1911, most fresh pentecostal denominations would adhere to Finished Work sanctification. [ 71 ] In 1914, a group of 300 predominately white pentecostal ministers and laymen from all regions of the United States gathered in Hot Springs, Arkansas, to create a new, national Pentecostal fellowship—the General Council of the Assemblies of God. [ 72 ] By 1911, many of these blank ministers were distancing themselves from an existing arrangement under an african-american leader. many of these white ministers were licensed by the african-american, C. H. Mason under the auspices of the Church of God in Christ, one of the few legally chartered pentecostal organizations at the time credentialing and license ordained Pentecostal clergy. To further such outdistance, Bishop Mason and other african-american pentecostal leaders were not invited to the initial 1914 family of Pentecostal ministers. These predominately white ministers adopted a congregational polity, whereas the COGIC and early southerly groups remained largely episcopal and rejected a Finished Work understanding of Sanctification. Thus, the creation of the Assemblies of God marked an official end of Pentecostal doctrinal integrity and racial consolidation. [ 73 ] Among these Finished work Pentecostals, the new Assemblies of God would soon face a “ new issue ” which first emerged at a 1913 camp converge. During a baptism service, the speaker, R. E. McAlister, mentioned that the Apostles baptized converts once in the name of Jesus Christ, and the words “ Father, Son, and Holy Ghost ” were never used in baptism. [ 74 ] This inspired Frank Ewart who claimed to have received as a divine prophecy revealing a nontrinitarian conception of God. [ 75 ] Ewart believed that there was entirely one personality in the Godhead —Jesus Christ. The terms “ Father ” and “ Holy Ghost ” were titles designating different aspects of Christ. Those who had been baptized in the trinitarian manner needed to submit to rebaptism in Jesus ‘ appoint. Furthermore, Ewart believed that Jesus ‘ diagnose baptism and the endowment of tongues were substantive for salvation. Ewart and those who adopted his belief, which is known as Oneness Pentecostalism, called themselves “ oneness ” or “ Jesus ‘ name ” Pentecostals, but their opponents called them “ Jesus alone ”. [ 76 ] [ 8 ] Amid capital controversy, the Assemblies of God rejected the Oneness teaching, and many of its churches and pastors were forced to withdraw from the appellation in 1916. [ 77 ] They organized their own Oneness groups. Most of these joined Garfield T. Haywood, an african-american preacher from Indianapolis, to form the Pentecostal Assemblies of the World. This church service maintained an interracial identity until 1924 when the white ministers withdrew to form the Pentecostal Church, Incorporated. This church late merged with another group forming the United Pentecostal Church International. [ 78 ] This controversy among the Finished Work Pentecostals caused Holiness Pentecostals to far distance themselves from Finished Work Pentecostals, who they viewed as dissident. [ 8 ]
While Pentecostals shared many basic assumptions with conservative Protestants, the earliest Pentecostals were rejected by Fundamentalist Christians who adhered to cessationism. In 1928, the World Christian Fundamentals Association labeled Pentecostalism “ fanatic ” and “ unscriptural ”. By the early on 1940s, this rejection of Pentecostals was giving way to a modern cooperation between them and leaders of the “ new evangelicalism ”, and american Pentecostals were involved in the establish of the 1942 National Association of Evangelicals. [ 79 ] Pentecostal denominations besides began to interact with each early both on national levels and external levels through the Pentecostal World Fellowship, which was founded in 1947. Some pentecostal churches in Europe, particularly in Italy and Germany, during the war were besides victims of the Holocaust. Because of their tongues speaking their members were considered mentally ill, and many pastors were sent either to confinement or to concentration camps. [ citation needed ] Though Pentecostals began to find acceptance among evangelicals in the 1940s, the previous decade was widely viewed as a meter of spiritual dispassion, when healings and early heaven-sent phenomena were perceived as being less prevailing than in earlier decades of the movement. [ 80 ] It was in this environment that the Latter Rain Movement, the most crucial controversy to affect Pentecostalism since World War II, began in North America and dispersed around the worldly concern in the former 1940s. Latter Rain leaders taught the restoration of the quintuple ministry led by apostles. These apostles were believed adequate to of imparting religious gifts through the put on of hands. [ 81 ] There were outstanding participants of the early on Pentecostal revivals, such as Stanley Frodsham and Lewi Pethrus, who endorsed the movement citing similarities to early Pentecostalism. [ 80 ] however, pentecostal denominations were critical of the movement and condemned many of its practices as unscriptural. One rationality for the dispute with the denominations was the sectarianism of Latter Rain adherents. [ 81 ] Many autonomous churches were birthed out of the revival. [ 80 ] A coincident exploitation within Pentecostalism was the postwar Healing Revival. Led by healing evangelists William Branham, Oral Roberts, Gordon Lindsay, and T. L. Osborn, the Healing Revival developed a comply among non-Pentecostals american samoa well as Pentecostals. many of these non-Pentecostals were baptized in the Holy Spirit through these ministries. The latter Rain and the Healing Revival influenced many leaders of the charismatic drift of the 1960s and 1970s. [ 82 ]
Before the 1960s, most non-Pentecostal Christians who experienced the Pentecostal baptism in the Holy Spirit typically kept their experience a individual matter or joined a Pentecostal church service subsequently. [ 83 ] The 1960s saw a modern radiation pattern develop where big numbers of Spirit baptized Christians from mainline churches in the US, Europe, and other parts of the global choose to remain and work for spiritual renewal within their traditional churches. This initially became known as New or Neo-Pentecostalism ( in contrast to the older classical pentecostalism ) but finally became known as the Charismatic Movement. [ 84 ] While conservatively supportive of the Charismatic Movement, the failure of Charismatics to embrace traditional Pentecostal teachings, such as the prohibition of dancing, abstinence from alcohol and other drugs such as tobacco, american samoa well as restrictions on dress and appearance following the doctrine of outward holiness, initiated an identity crisis for classical Pentecostals, who were forced to reexamine long held assumptions about what it meant to be Spirit filled. [ 85 ] [ 86 ] The liberalizing influence of the Charismatic Movement on authoritative pentecostalism can be seen in the disappearance of many of these taboos since the 1960s, aside from sealed Holiness Pentecostal denominations, such as the Apostolic Faith Church, which maintain these standards of outward holiness. Because of this, the cultural differences between classical Pentecostals and charismatics have lessened over time. [ 87 ] The global refilling movements manifest many of these tensions as built-in characteristics of Pentecostalism and as congressman of the character of ball-shaped Christianity. [ 88 ]

Beliefs [edit ]

Finland A pentecostal church in Jyväskylä pentecostalism is an evangelical religion, emphasizing the dependability of the Bible and the need for the transformation of an individual ‘s life through religion in Jesus. Like other evangelicals, Pentecostals by and large adhere to the Bible ‘s divine inspiration and inerrancy —the belief that the Bible, in the original manuscripts in which it was written, is without error. Pentecostals emphasize the education of the “ wide religious doctrine ” or “ foursquare religious doctrine ”. The condition foursquare refers to the four fundamental belief of pentecostalism : jesus saves according to John 3:16 ; baptizes with the Holy Spirit according to Acts 2:4 ; heals bodily according to James 5:15 ; and is coming again to receive those who are saved according to 1 Thessalonians 4:16–17 .

salvation [edit ]

pentecostal worshippers belonging to the christian Congregation in Brazil, with women wearing meek dress and headcoverings The central belief of classical Pentecostalism is that through the death, burying, and resurrection of Jesus Christ, sins can be forgiven and humanity reconciled with God. This is the Gospel or “ good news ”. The fundamental requirement of Pentecostalism is that one be born again. The modern parturition is received by the grace of God through faith in Christ as Lord and Savior. In being born again, the believer is regenerated, justified, adopted into the family of God, and the Holy Spirit ‘s sour of sanctification is initiated. classical Pentecostal soteriology is generally arminian preferably than Calvinist. The security of the believer is a doctrine hold within Pentecostalism ; however, this security is conditional upon continual religion and repentance. Pentecostals believe in both a actual eden and hell, the former for those who have accepted God ‘s giving of salvation and the latter for those who have rejected it. For most Pentecostals there is no other necessity to receive redemption. baptism with the Holy Spirit and speaking in tongues are not by and large required, though pentecostal converts are normally encouraged to seek these experiences. [ 100 ] A noteworthy exception is Jesus ‘ mention Pentecostalism, most adherents of which believe both water baptism and Spirit baptism are built-in components of redemption .

baptism with the Holy Spirit [edit ]

Pentecostals identify three clear-cut uses of the bible “ baptism “ in the New testament :

  • Baptism into the body of Christ: This refers to salvation. Every believer in Christ is made a part of his body, the Church, through baptism. The Holy Spirit is the agent, and the body of Christ is the medium.
  • Water baptism: Symbolic of dying to the world and living in Christ, water baptism is an outward symbolic expression of that which has already been accomplished by the Holy Spirit, namely baptism into the body of Christ.
  • Baptism with the Holy Spirit: This is an experience distinct from baptism into the body of Christ. In this baptism, Christ is the agent and the Holy Spirit is the medium.

While the human body of Jesus Christ and his redemptive workplace are at the center of Pentecostal theology, that redemptive work is believed to provide for a fullness of the Holy Spirit of which believers in Christ may take advantage. The majority of Pentecostals believe that at the moment a person is born again, the raw believer has the presence ( indwelling ) of the Holy Spirit. While the Spirit dwells in every Christian, Pentecostals believe that all Christians should seek to be filled with him. The Spirit ‘s “ filling ”, “ falling upon ”, “ coming upon ”, or being “ poured out upon ” believers is called the baptism with the Holy Spirit. Pentecostals define it as a definite experience occurring after salvation whereby the Holy Spirit comes upon the believer to anoint and empower them for special service. It has besides been described as “ a baptism into the love of God ”. The main purpose of the have is to grant might for christian servicing. other purposes include exponent for spiritual war ( the Christian struggles against spiritual enemies and thus requires apparitional office ), power for bubble over ( the believer ‘s feel of the presence and office of God in their life flows out into the lives of others ), and might for ability ( to follow divine direction, to face persecution, to exercise spiritual gifts for the edification of the church service, etc. ). Pentecostals believe that the baptism with the Holy Spirit is available to all Christians. repentance from sin and being born again are fundamental requirements to receive it. There must besides be in the believer a deep conviction of needing more of God in their life sentence, and a measure of consecration by which the believer yields themself to the will of God. Citing instances in the Book of Acts where believers were Spirit baptized before they were baptized with water, most Pentecostals believe a Christian need not have been baptized in water to receive Spirit baptism. however, Pentecostals do believe that the biblical practice is “ repentance, regeneration, water baptism, and then the baptism with the Holy Ghost ”. There are pentecostal believers who have claimed to receive their baptism with the Holy Spirit while being water baptized. It is received by having faith in God ‘s promise to fill the believer and in yielding the stallion being to Christ. Certain conditions, if present in a believer ‘s life, could cause delay in receiving Spirit baptism, such as “ weak religion, sinful surviving, progressive consecration, and egoistic motives ”. In the absence of these, Pentecostals teach that seekers should maintain a persistent faith in the cognition that God will fulfill his predict. For Pentecostals, there is no positive manner in which a believer will be filled with the Spirit. It could be expected or unexpected, during public or secret prayer. Pentecostals expect sealed results following baptism with the Holy Spirit. Some of these are immediate while others are enduring or permanent. Most pentecostal denominations teach that speaking in tongues is an contiguous or initial physical tell that one has received the experience. Some teach that any of the gifts of the Spirit can be evidence of having received Spirit baptism. other contiguous evidences include giving God praise, having joy, and desiring to testify about Jesus. Enduring or permanent results in the believer ‘s life sentence include Christ glorified and revealed in a greater direction, a “ deeper heat for soul ”, greater power to witness to nonbelievers, a more effective prayer life sentence, greater love for and insight into the Bible, and the expression of the gifts of the Spirit. Holiness Pentecostals, with their background in the Wesleyan-Holiness drift, historically teach that baptism with the Holy Spirit, as evidenced by glossolalia, is the third work of grace, which follows the newly parentage ( inaugural bring of grace ) and entire sanctification ( second work of grace ). [ 6 ] [ 7 ] [ 8 ] While the baptism with the Holy Spirit is a definite feel in a believer ‘s biography, Pentecostals view it as fair the beginning of living a Spirit-filled life. pentecostal teach stresses the importance of continually being filled with the Spirit. There is only one baptism with the Spirit, but there should be many infillings with the Spirit throughout the believer ‘s life .

Divine mend [edit ]

pentecostalism is a holistic religion, and the impression that Jesus is Healer is one quarter of the full gospel. Pentecostals cite four major reasons for believing in cleric mend : 1 ) it is reported in the Bible, 2 ) Jesus ‘ heal ministry is included in his atonement ( therefore providential bring around is function of salvation ), 3 ) “ the whole gospel is for the solid person ” —spirit, soul, and body, 4 ) nausea is a consequence of the Fall of Man and redemption is ultimately the restitution of the fallen universe. In the words of Pentecostal scholar Vernon L. Purdy, “ Because sin leads to human suffer, it was entirely natural for the early church to understand the ministry of Christ as the relief of homo agony, since he was God ‘s solution to sin … The restoration of fellowship with God is the most crucial thing, but this restitution not lone results in religious heal but many times in physical heal a well. ” In the book In Pursuit of Wholeness: Experiencing God’s Salvation for the Total Person, Pentecostal writer and Church historian Wilfred Graves, Jr. describes the healing of the torso as a physical expression of salvation. For Pentecostals, spiritual and physical curative serves as a admonisher and testimony to Christ ‘s future come back when his people will be completely delivered from all the consequences of the fall. however, not everyone receives healing when they pray. It is God in his sovereign wisdom who either grants or withholds healing. park reasons that are given in suffice to the wonder as to why all are not healed include : God teaches through suffer, healing is not always immediate, miss of religion on the function of the person needing mend, and personal sin in one ‘s life ( however, this does not mean that all illness is caused by personal sine ). Regarding heal and prayer Purdy states :

On the early hand, it appears from bible that when we are brainsick we should be prayed for, and as we shall see late in this chapter, it appears that God ‘s normal will is to heal. alternatively of expecting that it is not God ‘s will to heal us, we should pray with faith, trusting that God cares for us and that the planning He has made in Christ for our mend is sufficient. If He does not heal us, we will continue to trust Him. The victory many times will be procured in faith ( see Heb. 10:35–36 ; 1 John 5:4–5 ) .

Pentecostals believe that prayer and faith are central in receiving bring around. Pentecostals look to scriptures such as James 5:13–16 for steering regarding healing entreaty. One can pray for one ‘s own curative ( verse 13 ) and for the bring around of others ( verse 16 ) ; no special giving or clerical condition is necessary. Verses 14–16 supply the framework for congregational healing entreaty. The sick person expresses their faith by calling for the elders of the church who pray over and anoint the nauseated with olive vegetable oil. The oil is a symbol of the Holy Spirit. Besides prayer, there are early ways in which Pentecostals believe healing can be received. One way is based on Mark 16:17–18 and involves believers laying hands on the vomit. This is done in fake of Jesus who much healed in this manner. Another method acting that is found in some Pentecostal churches is based on the account in Acts 19:11–12 where people were healed when given handkerchiefs or aprons worn by the Apostle Paul. This practice is described by Duffield and Van Cleave in Foundations of Pentecostal Theology :

many Churches have followed a like blueprint and have given out humble pieces of fabric over which prayer has been made, and sometimes they have been anointed with anoint. Some most remarkable miracles have been reported from the use of this method. It is understood that the prayer fabric has no virtue in itself, but provides an act of faith by which one ‘s attention is directed to the Lord, who is the bang-up doctor .

During the initial decades of the movement, Pentecostals thought it was extraordinary to take medicine or receive care from doctors. Over meter, Pentecostals moderated their views concerning music and sophisticate visits ; however, a minority of Pentecostal churches continues to rely entirely on prayer and providential curative. For case, doctors in the United Kingdom reported that a minority of Pentecostal HIV patients were encouraged to stop taking their medicines and parents were told to stop giving medicine to their children, trends that placed lives at risk. [ 128 ]

eschatology [edit ]

The last element of the gospel is that Jesus is the “ Soon Coming King ”. For Pentecostals, “ every moment is eschatological ” since at any time Christ may return. [ 129 ] This “ personal and at hand ” second Coming is for Pentecostals the motivation for practical Christian living including : personal holiness, meeting together for idolize, close Christian service, and evangelism ( both personal and global ). [ 130 ] Globally, Pentecostal attitudes to the end Times range from enthusiastic participation in the prophecy subculture to a complete miss of interest through to the more recent, affirmative impression in the coming restoration of God ‘s kingdom. [ 131 ] historically, however, they have been premillennial dispensationalists believing in a pretribulation ecstasy. [ 132 ] Pre-tribulation ecstasy theology was popularized extensively in the 1830s by John Nelson Darby, [ 133 ] and far popularized in the United States in the early twentieth hundred by the across-the-board circulation of the Scofield Reference Bible. [ 134 ]

spiritual gifts [edit ]

Pentecostals are continuationists, meaning they believe that all of the spiritual gifts, including the marvelous or “ augury gifts ”, found in 1 Corinthians 12:4–11, 12:27–31, Romans 12:3–8, and Ephesians 4:7–16 stay to operate within the church in the present time. [ 135 ] Pentecostals place the gifts of the Spirit in context with the fruit of the Spirit. [ 136 ] The fruit of the Spirit is the result of the newfangled parturition and continuing to abide in Christ. It is by the fruit exhibited that religious quality is assessed. spiritual gifts are received as a solution of the baptism with the Holy Spirit. As gifts freely given by the Holy Spirit, they can not be earned or merited, and they are not appropriate criteria with which to evaluate one ‘s spiritual life or maturity. [ 137 ] Pentecostals see in the biblical writings of Paul an emphasis on having both quality and ability, exercising the gifts in love. barely as yield should be apparent in the life of every Christian, Pentecostals believe that every Spirit-filled believer is given some capacity for the manifestation of the Spirit. [ 138 ] It is important to note that the exercise of a gift is a expression of the Spirit, not of the talented person, and though the gifts operate through people, they are chiefly gifts given to the Church. [ 137 ] They are valuable only when they minister religious profit and edification to the body of Christ. Pentecostal writers point out that the lists of spiritual gifts in the New Testament do not seem to be exhaustive. It is broadly believed that there are as many gifts as there are useful ministries and functions in the Church. [ 138 ] A spiritual endowment is frequently exercised in partnership with another gift. For case, in a Pentecostal church service, the endowment of tongues might be exercised followed by the operation of the endowment of rendition. According to Pentecostals, all manifestations of the Spirit are to be judged by the church. This is made possible, in share, by the giving of discerning of spirits, which is the capacity for discerning the source of a apparitional manifestation—whether from the Holy Spirit, an evil spirit, or from the human spirit. [ 139 ] While Pentecostals believe in the current operation of all the spiritual gifts within the church, their teaching on some of these gifts has generated more controversy and sake than others. There are different ways in which the gifts have been grouped. W. R. Jones [ 140 ] suggests three categories, miniature ( Word of Wisdom, son of cognition, discerning of spirits ), action ( Faith, working of miracles and gifts of healings ) and communication ( Prophecy, tongues and rendition of tongues ). Duffield and Van Cleave use two categories : the outspoken and the power gifts .

outspoken gifts [edit ]

The gifts of prophecy, tongues, interpretation of tongues, and words of wisdom and cognition are called the vocal gifts. [ 141 ] Pentecostals look to 1 Corinthians 14 for instructions on the proper habit of the apparitional gifts, particularly the vocal ones. Pentecostals believe that prophecy is the vocal endow of preference, a opinion derived from 1 Corinthians 14. Some teach that the gift of tongues is equal to the endow of prophecy when tongues are interpreted. [ 142 ] Prophetic and glossolalic utterances are not to replace the preach of the Word of God [ 143 ] nor to be considered as equal to or superseding the written Word of God, which is the final authority for determining teach and doctrine. [ 144 ]

Word of wisdom and parole of cognition

[edit ]

Pentecostals understand the word of wisdom and the word of cognition to be supernatural revelations of wisdom and cognition by the Holy Spirit. The give voice of wisdom is defined as a revelation of the Holy Spirit that applies scriptural wisdom to a specific situation that a Christian community faces. [ 145 ] The bible of cognition is much defined as the ability of one person to know what God is presently doing or intends to do in the life of another person. [ 146 ]

prophecy [edit ]

Pentecostals agree with the Protestant principle of sola Scriptura. The Bible is the “ all sufficient rule for faith and drill ” ; it is “ fixed, finished, and aim disclosure ”. [ 147 ] Alongside this high esteem for the authority of bible is a belief that the giving of prophecy continues to operate within the Church. Pentecostal theologians Duffield and van Cleave described the gift of prophecy in the follow manner : “ normally, in the operation of the endow of prophecy, the Spirit heavily anoints the believer to speak forth to the body not premeditate words, but words the Spirit supplies ad lib in order to uplift and encourage, incite to faithful obedience and service, and to bring comfort and consolation. ” [ 139 ] Any Spirit-filled Christian, according to Pentecostal theology, has the likely, as with all the gifts, to prophesy. sometimes, prophecy can overlap with preaching “ where capital unpremeditated truth or application is provided by the Spirit, or where special revelation is given ahead in prayer and is empowered in the manner of speaking ”. [ 148 ] While a prophetic utterance at times might foretell future events, this is not the basal function of Pentecostal prophecy and is never to be used for personal guidance. For Pentecostals, prophetic utterances are fallible, i.e. subject to error. [ 143 ] Pentecostals teach that believers must discern whether the utterance has edifying value for themselves and the local church. [ 149 ] Because prophecies are national to the judgment and sagacity of early Christians, most Pentecostals teach that prophetic utterances should never be spoken in the first person ( e.g. “ I, the Lord ” ) but constantly in the third person ( e.g. “ frankincense saith the Lord ” or “ The Lord would have … ” ). [ 150 ]

Tongues and interpretation [edit ]

Mexico Pentecostals pray in tongues at an Assemblies of God church in Cancún A pentecostal believer in a spiritual experience may vocalize eloquent, opaque utterances ( glossolalia ) or articulate a natural terminology previously unknown to them ( xenoglossy ). normally termed “ speak in tongues ”, this vocal phenomenon is believed by Pentecostals to include an dateless variety show of languages. According to Pentecostal theology, the language spoken ( 1 ) may be an unlearned human lyric, such as the Bible claims happened on the Day of Pentecost, or ( 2 ) it might be of celestial ( angelic ) origin. In the first gear case, tongues could work as a sign by which witness is given to the cursed. In the second case, tongues are used for praise and prayer when the judgment is superseded and “ the loudspeaker in tongues speaks to God, speaks mysteries, and … no one understands him ”. [ 151 ] Within Pentecostalism, there is a belief that speaking in tongues serves two functions. Tongues as the initial evidence of the one-third work of decorate, baptism with the Holy Spirit, [ 6 ] and in person prayer serves a different purpose than tongues as a spiritual endowment. [ 151 ] [ 152 ] All Spirit-filled believers, according to initial tell proponents, will speak in tongues when baptized in the Spirit and, thereafter, will be able to express prayer and praise to God in an unknown tongue. This character of tongue public speaking forms an authoritative part of many Pentecostals ‘ personal daily devotions. When used in this way, it is referred to as a “ prayer linguistic process ” as the believer is speaking unknown languages not for the purpose of communicating with others but for “ communication between the soul and God ”. [ 153 ] Its aim is for the spiritual edification of the individual. Pentecostals believe the individual function of tongues in prayer ( i.e. “ prayer in the Spirit ” ) “ promotes a intensify of the prayer life and the spiritual development of the personality ”. From Romans 8:26–27, Pentecostals believe that the Spirit intercedes for believers through tongues ; in other words, when a believer prays in an obscure tongue, the Holy Spirit is preternaturally directing the believer ‘s prayer. [ 154 ] Besides acting as a prayer linguistic process, tongues besides function as the gift of tongues. not all Spirit-filled believers possess the give of tongues. Its determination is for give persons to publicly “ talk with God in praise, to pray or sing in the Spirit, or to speak away in the congregation ”. [ 155 ] There is a division among Pentecostals on the kinship between the gifts of tongues and prophecy. [ 156 ] One school of think believes that the give of tongues is always directed from man to God, in which lawsuit it is always prayer or praise spoken to God but in the hearing of the integral congregation for encouragement and consolation. Another school of thought believes that the gift of tongues can be prophetic, in which case the believer delivers a “ message in tongues ” —a prophetic utterance given under the influence of the Holy Spirit—to a congregation. Whether prophetic or not, however, Pentecostals are agreed that all public utterances in an stranger tongue must be interpreted in the speech of the collected Christians. [ 143 ] This is accomplished by the giving of interpretation, and this endowment can be exercised by the like individual who foremost delivered the message ( if he or she possesses the give of interpretation ) or by another individual who possesses the ask endowment. If a person with the endowment of tongues is not sure that a person with the give of interpretation is present and is unable to interpret the utterance themself, then the person should not speak. [ 143 ] Pentecostals teach that those with the gift of tongues should pray for the gift of interpretation. [ 155 ] Pentecostals do not require that an interpretation be a literal word-for-word translation of a glossolalic utterance. rather, as the give voice “ interpretation ” implies, Pentecostals expect only an accurate explanation of the utterance ‘s mean. [ 157 ] Besides the endowment of tongues, Pentecostals may besides use glossolalia as a kind of praise and worship in corporate settings. Pentecostals in a church overhaul may pray aloud in tongues while others pray simultaneously in the common linguistic process of the accumulate Christians. [ 158 ] This manipulation of glossolalia is seen as an acceptable phase of entreaty and consequently requires no interpretation. Congregations may besides corporately sing in tongues, a phenomenon known as whistle in the Spirit. Speaking in tongues is not universal among pentecostal Christians. In 2006, a ten-country surveil by the Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life found that 49 percentage of Pentecostals in the US, 50 percentage in Brazil, 41 percentage in South Africa, and 54 percentage in India said they “ never ” speak or pray in tongues. [ 100 ]

power gifts [edit ]

The gifts of power are clear-cut from the vocal gifts in that they do not involve utterance. Included in this category are the endow of faith, gifts of heal, and the gift of miracles. [ 159 ] The endow of religion ( sometimes called “ particular ” faith ) is unlike from “ saving faith ” and normal Christian religion in its degree and lotion. [ 160 ] This type of religion is a manifestation of the Spirit granted only to sealed individuals “ in times of special crisis or opportunity ” and endues them with “ a divine certainty … that triumphs over everything ”. It is sometimes called the “ religion of miracles ” and is fundamental to the operation of the other two power gifts. [ 161 ]

trinitarianism and Onenesss [edit ]

During the 1910s, the Finished Work Pentecostal movement rent over the nature of the Godhead into two camps – trinitarian and Oneness. [ 8 ] The Oneness doctrine viewed the doctrine of the Trinity as polytheistic. [ 162 ] The majority of Pentecostal denominations believe in the doctrine of the Trinity, which is considered by them to be christian orthodoxy ; these include Holiness Pentecostals and Finished Work Pentecostals. Oneness Pentecostals are nontrinitarian Christians, believing in the Oneness theology about God. [ 163 ] In Oneness theology, the Godhead is not three persons united by one substance, but one God who reveals himself in three different modes. therefore, God relates himself to humanity as our Father within creation, he manifests himself in human shape as the Son by merit of his embodiment as Jesus Christ ( 1 Timothy 3:16 ), and he is the Holy Spirit ( John 4:24 ) by room of his natural process in the liveliness of the believer. [ 164 ] [ 165 ] Oneness Pentecostals believe that Jesus is the name of God and therefore baptize in the name of Jesus Christ as performed by the apostles ( Acts 2:38 ), fulfilling the instructions left by Jesus Christ in the great Commission ( Matthew 28:19 ), they believe that Jesus is the entirely name given to mankind by which we must be saved ( Acts 4:12 ). The Oneness doctrine may be considered a mannequin of Modalism, an ancient teaching considered unorthodoxy by the Roman Catholic Church and early trinitarian denominations. In contrast, trinitarian Pentecostals hold to the doctrine of the Trinity, that is, the Godhead is not seen as just three modes or titles of God manifest at different points in history, but is constituted of three wholly distinct persons who are co-eternal with each other and unite as one substance. The Son is from all eternity who became bodied as Jesus, and likewise the Holy Spirit is from all eternity, and both are with the endless Father from all eternity. [ 166 ]

worship [edit ]

traditional Pentecostal worship has been described as a “ gestalt made up of prayer, scorch, sermon, the operation of the gifts of the Spirit, altar intervention, offer, announcements, testimonies, musical specials, Scripture read, and occasionally the Lord ‘s supper ”. [ 167 ] Russell P. Spittler identified five values that govern Pentecostal spiritualty. [ 168 ] The first base was individual experience, which emphasizes the Holy Spirit ‘s personal exploit in the life of the believer. Second was orality, a feature of speech that might explain Pentecostalism ‘s success in evangelizing preliterate cultures. The third gear was spontaneity ; members of pentecostal congregations are expected to follow the head of the Holy Spirit, sometimes resulting in unpredictable services. The one-fourth value governing Pentecostal spiritualty was “ spirituality ” or austerity, which was partially informed by Pentecostal eschatology. The concluding and fifth value was a commitment to biblical authority, and many of the distinctive practices of Pentecostals are derived from a misprint recitation of scripture. [ 168 ] spontaneity is a characteristic component of Pentecostal worship. This was specially true in the campaign ‘s earlier history, when anyone could initiate a song, refrain, or spiritual gift. [ 169 ] tied as Pentecostalism has become more form and formal, with more control exerted over services, [ 170 ] the concept of spontaneity has retained an authoritative plaza within the movement and continues to inform stereotyped imagination, such as the derogative “ holy roller “. The give voice “ Quench not the Spirit ”, derived from 1 Thessalonians 5:19, is used normally and captures the think behind pentecostal spontaneity. [ 171 ] Prayer plays an important function in Pentecostal worship. collective oral prayer, whether glossolalic or in the common or a shuffle of both, is common. While praying, individuals may lay hands on a person in need of prayer, or they may raise their hands in response to biblical commands ( 1 Timothy 2:8 ). The lift of hands ( which itself is a revival of the ancient orans military capability ) is an model of some Pentecostal worship practices that have been widely adopted by the larger christian populace. [ 172 ] [ 173 ] [ 174 ] Pentecostal musical and liturgical rehearse have besides played an influential function in shaping contemporary worship trends, with pentecostal churches such as Hillsong Church being the leading producers of congregational music. [ 175 ]
respective spontaneous practices have become feature of Pentecostal worship. Being “ slain in the Spirit “ or “ falling under the power ” is a form of collapse in which a person falls backwards, as if faint, while being prayed over. [ 176 ] [ 177 ] It is at times accompanied by glossolalic prayer ; at other times, the person is silent. [ 168 ] It is believed by Pentecostals to be caused by “ an consuming experience of the presence of God ”, [ 178 ] and Pentecostals sometimes receive the baptism in the Holy Spirit in this position. [ 168 ] Another ad-lib practice is “ dancing in the Spirit ”. This is when a person leaves their seat “ spontaneously ‘dancing ‘ with eyes closed without bumping into nearby persons or objects ”. It is explained as the worshiper becoming “ sol enchant with God ‘s presence that the Spirit takes control of physical motions adenine well as the apparitional and emotional being ”. [ 176 ] Pentecostals deduce biblical precedent for dancing in idolize from 2 Samuel 6, where David danced before the Lord. [ 168 ] A like occurrence is frequently called “ running the aisles “. The “ Jericho border ” ( inspired by Book of Joshua 6:1–27 ) is a celebratory practice occurring at times of high enthusiasm. Members of a congregation began to spontaneously leave their seats and walk in the aisles inviting other members as they go. finally, a full column forms around the circumference of the meet space as worshipers march with tattle and forte shouts of praise and celebration. [ 168 ] [ 179 ] Another ad-lib materialization found in some Pentecostal churches is holy laughter, in which worshippers uncontrollably laugh. In some Pentecostal churches, these ad-lib expressions are chiefly found in revival services ( specially those that occur at tent revivals and camp meetings ) or particular prayer meetings, being rare or non-existent in the main services .

Ordinances [edit ]

Like early christian churches, Pentecostals believe that certain rituals or ceremonies were instituted as a radiation pattern and control by Jesus in the New Testament. Pentecostals normally call these ceremonies ordinances. many Christians call these sacraments, but this term is not broadly used by Pentecostals and certain early Protestants as they do not see ordinances as imparting grace. [ 180 ] rather the term sacerdotal ordinance is used to denote the classifiable belief that decorate is received immediately from God by the congregant with the officiant serving only to facilitate preferably than acting as a conduit or vicar. The ordination of urine baptism is an outward symbol of an inner conversion that has already taken place. therefore, most pentecostal groups practice believer ‘s baptism by ingress. The majority of Pentecostals do not view baptism as all-important for salvation, and similarly, most Pentecostals are trinitarian and use the traditional trinitarian baptismal formula. however, Oneness Pentecostals view baptism as an necessity and necessity part of the salvation experience and, as non-Trinitarians, reject the consumption of the traditional baptismal formula. For more information on Oneness Pentecostal baptismal beliefs, see the follow section on Statistics and denominations. The ordinance of Holy Communion, or the Lord ‘s Supper, is seen as a calculate dominate given by Jesus at the last Supper, to be done in memorial of him. pentecostal denominations, who traditionally support the sobriety movement, reject the use of wine as part of communion, using grape juice alternatively. [ 181 ] [ 182 ] Certain Pentecostal denominations observe the regulation of women ‘s headcovering in obedience to 1 Corinthians 11:4–13. [ 183 ] Foot wash is besides held as an ordination by some Pentecostals. [ 184 ] It is considered an “ ordinance of humility ” because Jesus showed humility when washing his disciples ‘ feet in John 13:14–17. [ 180 ] other Pentecostals do not consider it an ordination ; however, they may placid recognize spiritual value in the practice. [ 185 ]

Statistics and denominations [edit ]

A modern Pentecostal church service in Seinäjoki, Finland According to versatile scholars and sources, Pentecostalism is the fastest-growing religious bowel movement in the world ; [ 186 ] [ 187 ] [ 188 ] [ 189 ] [ 190 ] this emergence is chiefly ascribable to religious conversion to Pentecostal and Charismatic Christianity. [ 191 ] [ 192 ] According to Pulitzer Center 35,000 people become pentecostal or “ Born again “ every day. [ 193 ] According to scholar Keith Smith of Georgia State University “ many scholars claim that Pentecostalism is the fastest growing religious phenomenon in human history ”, [ 194 ] and according to scholar Peter L. Berger of Boston University “ the spread of Pentecostal Christianity may be the fastest growing movement in the history of religion ”. [ 194 ] In 1995, David Barrett estimated there were 217 million “ denominational Pentecostals ” throughout the worldly concern. [ 195 ] In 2011, a Pew Forum discipline of ball-shaped Christianity found that there were an estimated 279 million authoritative Pentecostals, making 4 percentage of the total earth population and 12.8 percentage of the populace ‘s christian population Pentecostal. [ 196 ] The study found “ Historically Pentecostal denominations ” ( a category that did not include mugwump Pentecostal churches ) to be the largest protestant denominational class. [ 197 ] The largest percentage of Pentecostals are found in Sub-Saharan Africa ( 44 percentage ), followed by the Americas ( 37 percentage ) and Asia and the Pacific ( 16 percentage ). [ 198 ] The movement is enjoying its greatest tide today in the ball-shaped South, which includes Africa, Central and Latin America, and most of Asia. [ 199 ] [ 200 ] There are 740 recognized Pentecostal denominations, [ 201 ] but the movement besides has a significant number of mugwump churches that are not organized into denominations. [ 202 ] Among the over 700 pentecostal denominations, 240 are classified as partially of Wesleyan, Holiness, or “ Methodistic “ Pentecostalism. Until 1910, Pentecostalism was universally Wesleyan in doctrine, and Holiness Pentecostalism continues to predominate in the Southern United States. methodist Pentecostals teach that there are three crisis experiences within a Christian ‘s animation : conversion, sanctification, and Spirit baptism. They inherited the holiness movement ‘s impression in stallion sanctification. [ 6 ] According to Wesleyan Pentecostals, entire sanctification is a definite event that occurs after redemption but before Spirit baptism. This inward have cleanses and enables the believer to live a life of outward holiness. This personal cleaning prepares the believer to receive the baptism in the Holy Spirit. Holiness Pentecostal denominations include the Apostolic Faith Church, Congregational Holiness Church, Free Gospel Church, Church of God in Christ, Church of God ( Cleveland, Tennessee ), and the Pentecostal Holiness Church. [ 201 ] [ 203 ] [ 204 ] In the United States, many Holiness Pentecostal clergy are educated at the Free Gospel Bible Institute in Murrysville, Pennsylvania. [ 205 ] After William H. Durham began preaching his Finished Work doctrine in 1910, many Pentecostals rejected the Wesleyan doctrine of entire sanctification and began to teach that there were only two definite crisis experiences in the life of a christian : conversion and Spirit baptism. These Finished exercise Pentecostals ( besides known as “ baptistic “ or “ Reformed ” Pentecostals because many converts were primitively drawn from Baptist and Presbyterian backgrounds ) teach that a person is initially sanctified at the moment of conversion. After conversion, the believer grows in grace through a lifelong process of progressive sanctification. There are 390 denominations that adhere to the finished work military position. They include the Assemblies of God, the Foursquare Gospel Church, and the Open Bible Churches. [ 201 ] [ 203 ] The 1904–1905 Welsh Revival laid the basis for british Pentecostalism including a discrete family of denominations known as apostolic Pentecostalism ( not to be confused with Oneness Pentecostalism ). These Pentecostals are led by a hierarchy of living apostles, prophets, and early charismatic offices. apostolic Pentecostals are found worldwide in 30 denominations, including the Apostolic Church based in the United Kingdom. [ 201 ] There are 80 pentecostal denominations that are classified as Jesus ‘ name or Oneness Pentecostalism ( frequently self identifying as “ papal Pentecostals ” ). [ 201 ] These differ from the rest of Pentecostalism in several meaning ways. Oneness Pentecostals reject the doctrine of the Trinity. They do not describe God as three persons but rather as three manifestations of the one be God. Oneness Pentecostals drill Jesus ‘ diagnose Baptism —water baptism performed in the name of Jesus Christ, rather than that of the Trinity. Oneness pentecostal adherents believe repentance, baptism in Jesus ‘ diagnose, and Spirit baptism are all substantive elements of the conversion experience. [ 206 ] Oneness Pentecostals hold that repentance is necessity earlier baptism to make the ordinance valid, and receipt of the Holy Spirit manifested by speaking in other tongues is necessary afterwards, to complete the knead of baptism. This differs from other Pentecostals, along with evangelical Christians in general, who see entirely repentance and religion in Christ as necessity to redemption. This has resulted in Oneness believers being accused by some ( including other Pentecostals ) of a “ works-salvation ” soteriology, [ 207 ] a charge they vehemently deny. oneness Pentecostals insist that salvation comes by grace through religion in Christ, coupled with obedience to his command to be “ born of water and of the Spirit ” ; therefore, no good works or obedience to laws or rules can save anyone. [ 208 ] For them, baptism is not seen as a “ work ” but quite the indispensable means that Jesus himself provided to come into his kingdom. The major Oneness churches include the United Pentecostal Church International and the Pentecostal Assemblies of the World. In addition to the denominational Pentecostal churches, there are many Pentecostal churches that choose to exist independently of denominational oversight. [ 202 ] Some of these churches may be doctrinally identical to the assorted Pentecostal denominations, while others may adopt beliefs and practices that differ well from authoritative Pentecostalism, such as Word of Faith teachings or Kingdom now theology. Some of these groups have been successful in utilizing the mass media, particularly television receiver and radio receiver, to spread their message. [ 209 ] According to a denomination census in 2022, the Assemblies of God, the largest pentecostal appellation in the universe, has 367,398 churches and 53,700,000 members cosmopolitan. [ 210 ] The other major international Pentecostal denominations are the Apostolic Church with 15,000,000 members, [ 211 ] the Church of God ( Cleveland ) with 36,000 churches and 7,000,000 members, [ 212 ] The Foursquare Church with 67,500 churches and 8,800,000 members. [ 213 ] Among the censuses carried out by pentecostal denominations published in 2020, those claiming the most members were on each continent : In Africa, the Redeemed Christian Church of God, [ 214 ] with 14,000 churches and 5 million members. In North America, the Assemblies of God USA with 12,986 churches and 1,810,093 members. [ 215 ] In South America, the General Convention of the Assemblies of God in Brazil with 12,000,000 members. [ 216 ] In Asia, the indonesian Bethel Church with 5,000 churches and 3,000,000 members. [ 217 ] In Europe, the Assemblies of God of France with 658 churches and 40,000 members. [ 218 ] In Oceania, the australian Christian Churches with 1,000 churches and 375,000 members. [ 219 ]

appraisal from the social sciences [edit ]

Zora Neale Hurston [edit ]

This Pentecostalist concentrate of worship has incorporated a democrat label into its name, the Peoples Church Dublin City Zora Neale Hurston performed anthropological, sociological studies examining the spread of Pentecostalism. [ 220 ] According to learner of religion Ashon Crawley, Hurston ‘s analysis is significant because she understood the class contend that this apparently new religiocultural movement articulated : “ The Sanctified Church is a protest against the high-brow inclination in Negro Protestant congregations as the Negroes gain more education and wealth. ” [ 220 ] She stated that this faction was “ a regenerate component in Negro music and religion ” and that this collection of groups was “ putting back into Negro religion those elements which were brought over from Africa and grafted onto Christianity. ” Crawley would go on to argue that the abuse that Hurston documented was evidence of what Martinique analyst Frantz Fanon called the refusal of positionality wherein “ no strategic military position is given predilection ” as the universe of, the grounds for, social shape. [ 221 ]

rural pentecostalism [edit ]

pentecostalism is a religious phenomenon more visible in the cities. however, it has attracted significant rural populations in Latin America, Africa, and Eastern Europe. sociologist David Martin [ 222 ] has called attention on an overview on the rural Protestantism in Latin America, focusing on the autochthonal and peasant conversion to Pentecostalism. The cultural change resulting from the countryside modernization has reflected on the peasant manner of life. Consequently, many peasants – specially in Latin America – have experienced collective conversion to different forms of Pentecostalism and interpreted as a reception to modernization in the countryside [ 223 ] [ 224 ] [ 225 ] [ 226 ] rather than a mere religious chemise from family Catholicism to Pentecostalism, Peasant Pentecostals have dealt with agency to employ many of their cultural resources to respond development projects in a modernization framework [ 227 ] [ 228 ] [ 229 ] Researching Guatemalan peasants and autochthonal communities, Sheldon Annis [ 223 ] argued that conversion to Pentecostalism was a means to quit the burdensome obligations of the cargo-system. Mayan folk Catholicism has many fiestas with a rotation leadership who must pay the costs and organize the annual patron-saint festivities. One of the socially-accepted ways to opt out those obligations was to convert to Pentecostalism. By doing so, the Pentecostal Peasant engage in a “ penny capitalism ”. In the lapp lines of moral obligations but with different mechanism economic self-help, Paul Chandler [ 227 ] has compared the differences between Catholic and Pentecostal peasants, and has found a network of reciprocality among Catholics compadres, which the Pentecostals lacked. however, Alves [ 224 ] has found that the unlike Pentecostal congregations replaces the compadrazgo system and calm provide channels to exercise the reciprocal obligations that the peasant moral economy demands. conversion to Pentecostalism provides a rupture with a socially disrupted past while allowing to maintain elements of the peasant ethos. Brazil has provided many cases to evaluate this dissertation. Hoekstra [ 230 ] has found out that rural Pentecostalism more as a continuity of the traditional past though with some ruptures. Anthropologist Brandão [ 231 ] sees the minor town and rural Pentecostalism as another face for family religiosity rather of a path to modernization. With similar discover, Abumanssur [ 232 ] regards Pentecostalism as an attempt to conciliate traditional worldviews of family religion with modernity. Identity chemise has been noticed among rural converts to Pentecostalism. Indigenous and peasant communities have found in the Pentecostal religion a new identity that helps them navigate the challenges posed by modernity. [ 233 ] [ 234 ] [ 235 ] [ 236 ] This identity switch corroborates the dissertation that the peasant Pentecostals pave their own ways when facing modernization .

Controversies [edit ]

versatile christian groups have criticized the Pentecostal and charismatic drift for excessively much attention to mystic manifestations, such as glossolalia ( which, for a believer, would be the obligatory augury of a baptism with the Holy Spirit ) ; along with falls to the ground, moans and cries during worship services, angstrom well as anti-intellectualism. [ 237 ] A peculiarly controversial doctrine in the evangelical Churches is that of the prosperity theology, which spread in the 1970s and 1980s in the United States, chiefly through Pentecostals and charismatic televangelists. [ 238 ] [ 239 ] This doctrine is centered on the teach of christian faith as a means to enrich oneself financially and materially through a “ positivist confession ” and a contribution to christian ministries. [ 240 ] Promises of divine heal and prosperity are guaranteed in exchange for sealed amounts of contribution. [ 241 ] [ 242 ] Some pastors threaten those who do not tithe with curses, attacks from the annoy and poverty. [ 243 ] [ 244 ] The collections of offerings are multiple or separated in respective baskets or envelopes to stimulate the contributions of the close. [ 245 ] [ 246 ] The offerings and the tithe occupies a lot of time in some worship services. [ 247 ] Often associated with the mandatary tithe, this doctrine is sometimes compared to a religious business. [ 248 ] [ 249 ] [ 250 ] In 2012, the National Council of Evangelicals of France published a document denouncing this doctrine, mentioning that prosperity was indeed possible for a believer, but that this theology taken to the extreme leads to materialism and to idolatry, which is not the purpose of the gospel. [ 251 ] [ 252 ] Pentecostal pastors adhering to prosperity theology have been criticized by journalists for their lavish life style ( luxury clothes, big houses, high end cars, private aircraft, etc. ). [ 253 ] In Pentecostalism, rifts accompanied the teach of religion mend. In some churches, pricing for prayer against promises of bring around has been observed. [ 223 ] Some pastors and evangelists have been charged with claiming assumed healings. [ 254 ] [ 255 ] Some churches have advised their members against inoculation or early medicate, stating that it is for those unaccented in the religion and that with a cocksure confession, they would be immune from the disease. [ 256 ] [ 257 ] In 2019, in Mbandjock, in Cameroon, three deaths were linked to this position in a church. [ 258 ] This place is not representative of all evangelical churches. “ The Miraculous Healing, ” published in 2015 by the National Council of Evangelicals of France, mentions that music is one of the gifts of God given to humans. [ 259 ] [ 260 ] Churches and certain evangelical humanitarian organizations are besides involved in medical health programs. [ 261 ] [ 262 ] [ 263 ]

People [edit ]

Forerunners [edit ]

Leaders [edit ]

See besides [edit ]

References [edit ]

bibliography [edit ]

far recitation [edit ]

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